A poem having verses/words beginning with successive letters of the alphabet.
The first ballads appeared in the 15th century telling a story. They were often in the form of popular songs and have simple rhyme schemes and regular rhythm. They are iambic and some have a chorus or refrain. Popular rhyme schemes are a b c b; and a b c b d b
The Ballade is a French form composed of three stanzas of eight lines and an envoy of four lines, with the last line of each stanza a refrain. It is usually iambic and the most common line lengths are eight or ten syllables. The rhyme scheme is ababbcbC ababbcbC ababbcbC bcbC.
- Blank verse
Poetry that is written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Blank verse is often unobtrusive and the iambic pentameter form often resembles the rhythms of ordinary speech. Shakespeare wrote most of his plays in blank verse.
Burlesque is a story, play, or essay, that treats a serious subject ridiculously, or is simply a trivial story
A medieval Italian lyric poem, with five or six stanzas and a shorter concluding stanza (or envoy).
- Carpe diem
A Latin expression that means "seize the day." Carpe diem poems have the theme of living for today
The traditional cinquain is based on a syllable count.
line 1 - 2 syllables
line 2 - 4 syllables
line 3 - 6 syllables
line 4 - 8 syllables
line 5 - 2 syllables
The modern cinquain is based on a word count of words of a certain type.
line 1 - one word (noun) a title or name of the subject
line 2 - two words (adjectives) describing the title
line 3 - three words (verbs) describing an action related to the title
line 4 - four words describing a feeling about the titlem, a complete sentence
line 5 - one word referring back to the title of the poem
The principles and ideals of beauty that are characteristic of Greek and Roman art, architecture, and literature. Examples of classicism in poetry can be found in the works of John Dryden and Alexander Pope, which are characterized by their formality, simplicity, and emotional restraint.
A couplet has rhyming stanzas each made up of two lines. Shakespearean sonnets usually end in a couplet
A sad and thoughtful poem lamenting the death of a person. An example of this type of poem is Thomas Gray's "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard."
A long, serious poem that tells the story of a heroic figure. Two of the most famous epic poems are the Iliad and the Odyssey by Homer and the epic poem of Hiawatha
A very short, satirical and witty poem usually written as a brief couplet or quatrain. The term epigram is derived from the Greek word epigramma, meaning inscription.The epigram was cultivated in the late sixteenth and seventeenth centuries by poets like Ben Jonson and John Donne
An epitaph is a commemorative inscription on a tomb or mortuary monument written in praise of a deceased person
- Epithalamium (or Epithalamion)
A wedding poem written in honour of a bride and bridegroom.
- Free verse (also vers libre)
Poetry composed of either rhymed or unrhymed lines that have no set fixed metrical pattern or expectation.
A haiku is an unrhymed 17 syllable poem of Japanese origin. It usually has a seasonal reference.The structure is:
line 1 - 5 syllables
line 2 - 7 syllables
line 3 - 5 syllables
- Idyll, or Idyl
Either a short poem depicting a peaceful, idealized country scene, or a long poem that tells a story about heroes of a bye gone age.
A lay is a long narrative poem, especially one that was sung by medieval minstrels called trouvères.
A short sometimes bawdy, humorous poem of consisting of five anapaestic lines. Lines 1, 2, and 5 of a Limerick have seven to ten syllables and rhyme with one another. Lines 3 and 4 have five to seven syllables and also rhyme with each other.
A poem, such as a sonnet or an ode, that expresses the thoughts and feelings of the poet. The term lyric is now generally referred to as the words to a song.
A verse in which certain letters such as the first in each line form a word or a message
- Narrative Poetry
Tell a story in poetry alone.
A poem that depicts rural life in a peaceful, idealized way for example of shepherds or country life.
A stanza or poem of four lines.
Lines 2 and 4 must rhyme.
Lines 1 and 3 may or may not rhyme.
Rhyming lines should have a similar number of syllables
A rhyme has the repetition of the same or similar sounds at the end of two or more words most often at the ends of lines. There are several derivatives of this term which include double rhyme, Triple rhyme, rising rhyme, falling rhyme, Perfect and imperfect rhymes.
- Rhyme royal
A type of poetry introduced by Geoffrey Chaucer consisting of stanzas of seven lines in iambic pentameter.
Nature and love were a major themes of Romanticism favoured by 18th and 19th century poets such as Byron, Shelley, and Keats. Emphasis was placed on the personal experiences of the individual.
A senryu is a three line Japanese poem structurally similar to haiku. It is unrhymed and the subject is based human nature. It is usually satirical or ironic.
•line 1 - 5 syllables
•line 2 - 7 syllables
•line 3 - 5 syllables
Tanka is a form of unrhymed Japanese poetry, with five sections totalling 31 onji (phonological units identical to morae), structured in a 5-7-5 7-7 pattern. There is generally a shift in tone and subject matter between the upper 5-7-5 phrase and the lower 7-7 phrase.
- Terza rima
A type of poetry consisting of 10 or 11 syllable lines arranged in three-line "tercets". The poet Dante is credited with inventing terza rima and it has been used by many English poets including Chaucer, Milton, Shelley, and Auden.
The Shakespearian sonnet, also known as the English Sonnet, is written in fourteen lines of in iambic pentameter. It uses alternative rhyme connecting different images and a final couplet forming a conclusion. The Shakespearean sonnet is flexible in its volta, or turning point, (Shakespeare often used line 9), and has a rhyme scheme of abab,cdcd,efef,gg..
- Climbing Rhyme
Burmese poetry has a long and distinguished history. Classical Burmese poetry comes in many lengths and forms, but most of it is characterized by a repeated sequence of 3 internally-rhymed lines consisting of 4 syllables each–a pattern that has become known as Climbing Rhyme. Most Burmese patterns employ a scheme of internal rhyme: the same rhyme appears in the 4th syllable of line 1, the 3rd syllable of line 2 and the 2nd syllable of line 3. This is called the 4-3-2 scheme; its characteristic stairstep gave rise to its name, climbing rhyme. The last syllable of line 3 begins a new series of rhymes, continuing the 4-3-2 pattern.
The Dodoitsu is a fixed folk song form of Japanese origin and is often about love or humor. It has 26 syllables made of of four lines of 7, 7, 7, 5 syllables respectively. It is unrhymed and non-metrical.
The ghazal (Arabic: ghazal, Persian: ghazel, Turkish/Azerbaijani: gazel, Urdu: gazal, Bengali/Sylheti: gozol) is a form of poetry common in Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Urdu and Bengali poetry. In classic form, the ghazal has from five to fifteen rhyming couplets that share a refrain at the end of the second line. This refrain may be of one or several syllables, and is preceded by a rhyme. Each line has an identical meter. Each couplet forms a complete thought and stands alone, and the overall ghazal often reflects on a theme of unattainable love or divinity. The last couplet generally includes the signature of the author.
In a traditional Pantoum:
- The lines are grouped into quatrains (4-line stanzas).
- The final line of the Pantoum must be the same as its first line.
- A Pantoum has any number of quatrains.
- Lines may be of any length.
- The Pantoum has a rhyme scheme of abab in each quatrain. Thus, the lines rhyme alternately
The Pantoum says everything twice: For all quatrains except the first, the first line of the current quatrain repeats the second line in the preceeding quatrain; and the third line of the current quatrain repeats the fourth line of the preceeding quatrain In addition, for the final quatrain, its second line repeats the (so-far unrepeated) third line in the first quatrain; and its last line repeats the (so-far unrepeated) first line of the first quatrain.
Thus the pattern of line-repetition is as follows, where the lines of the first quatrain are represented by the numbers "1 2 3 4":
1 2 3 4 - Lines in first quatrain.
2 5 4 6 - Lines in second quatrain.
5 7 6 8 - Lines in third quatrain.
7 9 8 10 - Lines in fourth quatrain.
9 3 10 1 - Lines in fifth and final quatrain.
In this example, we have 5 quatrains. You could have more. You could have fewer.
A Than-Bauk, conventionally a witty saying or epigram, is a three line "climbing rhyme" poem of Burmese origin. Each line has four syllables. The rhyme is on the fourth syllable of the first line, the third syllable of the second line, and the second syllable of the third line.
The jintishi is a Chinese poetic form based on a series of set tonal patterns using the four tones of Middle Chinese in each couplet: the level, rising, departing and entering tones. The basic form of the jintishi has eight lines in four couplets, with parallelism between the lines in the second and third couplets. The couplets with parallel lines contain contrasting content but an identical grammatical relationship between words. Jintishi often have a rich poetic diction, full of allusion, and can have a wide range of subject, including history and politics. One of the masters of the form was Du Fu, who wrote during the Tang Dynasty (8th century). There are several variations on the basic form of the jintishi.
The sestina has six stanzas, each comprising six unrhymed lines, in which the words at the end of the first stanza’s lines reappear in a rolling pattern in the other stanzas. The poem then ends with a three-line stanza in which the words again appear, two on each line.
The villanelle has 19 lines, 5 stanzas of three lines and 1 stanza of four lines with two rhymes and two refrains. The 1st, then the 3rd lines alternate as the last lines of stanzas 2,3,and 4, and then stanza 5 (the end) as a couplet. It is usually written in tetrameter (4 feet) or pentameter.The structure is:
line 1 - a - 1st refrain
line 2 - b
line 3 - a - 2nd refrain
line 4 - a
line 5 - b
line 6 - a - 1st refrain (same as line 1)
line 7 - a
line 8 - b
line 9 - a - 2nd refrain (same as line 2)
line 10 - a
line 11 - b
line 12 - a - 1st refrain (same as line 1)
line 13 - a
line 14 - b
line 15 - a - 2nd refrain (same as line 2)
line 16 - a
line 17 - b
line 18 - a - 1st refrain (same as line 1)
line 19 - a - 2nd refrain (same as line 2)
The rondeau consists of three stanzas, a quintet (5 lines), a quatrain (4 lines) and a sestet (6 lines). The first phrase of the first line usually sets the refrain (R), but sometimes the refrain can be the whole of the first line. The structure is:
line 1 - a (R)(normally the first phrase is the refrain)
line 2 - a
line 3 - b
line 4 - b
line 5 - a
line 6 - a
line 7 - a
line 8 - b
line 9 - R
line 10 - a
line 11 - a
line 12 - b
line 13 - b
line 14 - a
line 15 - R
- Rondelet The rondelet is a french form consisting of two rhymes contained in a seven line stanza. Line one is the exact same as the 3rd and 7th lines. The structure is:
line 1 - 4 syllables - A (the same as line 3 and 7)
line 2 - 8 syllables - b
line 3 - 4 syllables - A
line 4 - 8 syllables - a
line 5 - 8 syllables - b
line 6 - 8 syllables - b
line 7 - 4 syllables - A
A triolet is an eight line poem or stanza with a set rhyme scheme. Line four and line seven are the same as line one, and line eight is the same as line two. The rhyme scheme is ABaAabAB.
line 1 - A
line 2 - B
line 3 - a
line 4 - A (line 1)
line 5 - a
line 6 - b
line 7 - A (line 1)
line 8 - B (line 2)
Odes were first developed by poets writing in ancient Greek, such as Pindar, and Latin, such as Horace. Forms of odes appear in many of the cultures that were influenced by the Greeks and Latins. The ode generally has three parts: a strophe, an antistrophe, and an epode. The antistrophes of the ode possess similar metrical structures and, depending on the tradition, similar rhyme structures. In contrast, the epode is written with a different scheme and structure. Odes have a formal poetic diction, and generally deal with a serious subject. The strophe and antistrophe look at the subject from different, often conflicting, perspectives, with the epode moving to a higher level to either view or resolve the underlying issues. Odes are often intended to be recited or sung by two choruses (or individuals), with the first reciting the strophe, the second the antistrophe, and both together the epode. Over time,differing forms for odes have developed with considerable variations in form and structure, but generally showing the original influence of the Pindaric or Horatian ode. One non-Western form which resembles the ode is the qasida in Persian poetry.
A clerihew is 'a humorous pseudo-biographical quatrain, rhymed as two couplets, with lines of uneven length more or less in the rhythm of prose". The name of the subject is usually at the end of the first line (sometimes the second line) and is well known. The humour of the clerihew is whimsical rather than satiric.
The diamonte is fun and easy to write. The purpose is to go from the subject at the top of the diamond to another totally different (and sometimes opposite) subject at the bottom. The structure is
line 1 - one noun (subject #1)
line 2 - two adjectives (describing subject #1)
line 3 - three participles (ending in -ing, telling about the subject #1)
line 4 - four nouns (first two related to the subject #1, second two related to subject #2)
line 5 - three participles (ending in -ing, telling about subject #2)
line 6 - two adjectives (describing subject #2)
line 7 - one noun (subject #2)
The Kyrielle is a French form written in quatrains. Each quatrain contains a repeated line or phrase as a refrain. It has a meter usually composed of eight syllables per line but it can be varied. There is no limit to the number of stanzas, but three is generally the minumum.The normal structure is a/a/b/B, c/c/b/B, d/d/b/B. with B being the repeated line. A varied structure could be a/b/a/B, c/b/c/B, d/b/d/B. etc.or even a second line that did not rhyme at all. a/e/a/Z etc.
A nonet has nine lines. The first line has nine syllables, the second line eight syllables, the third line seven syllables, etc... until line nine that finishes with one syllable. It can be on any subject and rhyming is optional.
line 1 - 9 syllables
line 2 - 8 syllables
line 3 - 7 syllables
line 4 - 6 syllables
line 5 - 5 syllables
line 6 - 4 syllables
line 7 - 3 syllables
line 8 - 2 syllables
line 9 - 1 syllables
A Quatern is a sixteen line French form composed of four quatrains. It is similar to the Kyrielle and the Retourne. It has a refrain that is in a different place in each quatrain. The first line of stanza one is the second line of stanza two, third line of stanza three, and fouth line of stanza four. A quatern has eight syllables per line. It does not have to be iambic or follow a set rhyme scheme.
line 6 (line 1)
line 11 (line 1)
line 16 (line 1)
A rictameter is a nine line poetry form. The 1st and last lines are the same with the syllable count as follows:
•line 1 - 2 syllables - same as line 9
•line 2 - 4 syllables
•line 3 - 6 syllables
•line 4 - 8 syllables
•line 5 - 10 syllable
•line 6 - 8 syllables
•line 7 - 6 syllables
•line 8 - 4 syllables
•line 9 - 2 syllables - same as line 1
Tetractys should express a complete thought, profound or comic, witty or wise using 20 syllables. They can be written with more than one verse but each subsequent verse must invert the syllable count. There is no limit to the number of verses. The structure is:
line 1 - 1 syllable
line 2 - 2 syllables
line 3 - 3 syllables
line 4 - 4 syllables
line 5 - 10 syllables
A tyburn is a six line poem with a set syllable count.The first four lines rhyme and are all descriptive words. The last two lines rhyme and incorporate the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th lines as the 5th to 8th syllables. The structure is:
line 1 - 2 syllables
line 2 - 2 syllables
line 3 - 2 syllables
line 4 - 2 syllables
line 5 - 9 syllables
line 6 - 9 syllables
Tuesday, September 13, 2011
101 Specifics: #6 Poetry
This one gets it's own entry because of the list below. Each item represent a form of poetry. They are in no particular order but they are all forms I want to try.